The Allied victors sought to ensure post-war peace by founding the League of Nations, which functioned as a collective security treaty and called for joint action by all its members to defend one or more individual members against an aggressor. A collective security agreement differs from an alliance in several ways: (1) it is more inclusive in its members, (2) the purpose of the agreement is not named and can be any potential aggressor, including even one of the signatories, and (3) the purpose of the agreement is to deter a potential aggressor by looking at the dominant power organized and used against him. However, the League of Nations became manifestly ineffective in the mid-1930s after its members refused to use force to stop the aggressive actions of Japan, Italy and Germany. If a contract does not contain any provisions for other agreements or actions, only the text of the contract is legally binding. In general, an amendment to a treaty is binding only on those States that have ratified it, and agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of States parties are politically binding, but not legally. An example of a treaty that contains provisions for other binding agreements is the Charter of the United Nations. By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by the resolutions of United Nations bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council. Therefore, UN resolutions are legally binding on UN member states and no signature or ratification is required. Award in recognition of the contributions of a person or organization to “work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and for the maintenance and promotion of peace.” POLITICS – NATO promotes democratic values and enables its members to consult and work together on defence and security issues to resolve problems, build trust and prevent conflicts in the long term.
Energy security from natural resources is a final important component of national security. For a nation to be able to develop its industry and maintain its economic competitiveness, it must have available and affordable natural resources. (1967) Conflict between Israel and Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Every day, member countries consult and decide on security issues at all levels and in various fields. U.S. Department of State employee who provides administrative, technical, and security support to the Foreign Service system in the U.S. and abroad. Although generally linked to the Westphalian state system and the European balance of power, alliances took shape on other continents and at other times. In his classic work Artha-shastra (“The Science of Material Gain”), Kautilya, an advisor to the Indian king Chandragupta (reigned around 321-297 BC), argues that countries should seek the support and help of distant states in pursuing alliances against the threat of neighboring states (following the logic that the enemy`s enemy must be their own friend). The legacy of colonialism in Africa has delayed the development of collective defense systems there, but elsewhere in the developing world, alliances have played a crucial role in developing regional balance. For example, the triple alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay devastated Paraguay during the Paraguayan War of 1865-70, reducing its territorial possessions as well as its population by about 60%.
Until the Cold War in the latter half of the 20th century, ideology was generally not a major factor in forming such coalitions. For example, in 1536, Francis I, the Roman Catholic king of France, allied himself with the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I, who was a Muslim, against Emperor Charles V, another Catholic, because Charles` possessions almost surrounded France. Similarly, Britain and the United States allied with the communist Soviet Union during World War II (1939-45) to defeat Nazi Germany. In 2008, a perfect storm of economic disasters hit the United States and even the entire world. The most serious began with the collapse of the housing bubbles in California and Florida, as well as the collapse of real estate prices and the construction industry. A number of the largest banks in the United States and Europe have also collapsed; some went bankrupt, others were saved by the government. The U.S. government voted for $700 billion in bailouts, providing trillions of dollars to support the financial system, but the measures did not reverse the decline. Banks have significantly tightened their lending policies, despite injections of federal funds. The stock market plunged 40%, erasing tens of trillions of dollars in assets; Property prices have fallen by 20% nationwide, erasing billions more. By the end of 2008, the challenges had extended beyond the financial and real estate sectors.
President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 in February 2009; The bill provides incentives of $787 billion through a combination of spending and tax cuts. .